SQL Data Types

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The SQL data type defines a kind of value that a column can contain.

In a database table, every column is required to have a name and a data type.

Data Type varies from database to database. For example, MySQL supports INT but Oracle supports NUMBER for integer values.

These are the general data types in SQL.

Data-type Syntax Explanation
Integer INTEGER The integer data type is used to specify an integer value.
Smallint SMALLINT The smallint data type is used to specify small integer value.
Numeric NUMERIC(P,S) It specifies a numeric value. Here 'p' is precision value and 's' is scale value.
Real REAL The real integer is used to specify a single precision floating point number.
Decimal DECIMAL(P,S) It specifies a decimal value. Here 'p' is precision value and 's' is scale value.
Double precision DOUBLE PRECISION It specifies double precision floating point number.
Float FLOAT(P) It specifies floating-point value e.g. 12.3, 4.5 etc. Here, 'p' is precision value.
Character CHAR(X) Here, 'x' is the character's number to store.
Character varying VARCHAR2(X) Here, 'x' is the character's number to store
Bit BIT(X) Here, 'x' is the number of bits to store
Bit varying BIT VARYING(X) Here, 'x' is the number of bits to store (length can vary up to x).
Date DATE It stores year, month and days values.
Time TIME It stores hour, minute and second values
Timestamp TIMESTAMP The timestamp data type is used to store year, month, day, hour, minute and second values.
Time with time zone TIME WITH TIME ZONE It is exactly same as time but also store an offset from UTC of the time specified.
Timestamp with time zone TIMESTAMP with TIME ZONE It is same as timestamp but also stores an offset from UTC of the time specified.