HTML Charset

Education is not limited to just classrooms. It can be gained anytime, anywhere... - Ravi Ranjan (M.Tech-NIT)

What is Character Encoding?

ASCII was the first character encoding standard (also called character set). ASCII defined 127 different alphanumeric characters that could be used on the internet: numbers (0-9), English letters (A-Z), and some special characters like ! $ + - ( ) @ < > .

ANSI (Windows-1252) was the original Windows character set, with support for 256 different character codes.

ISO-8859-1 was the default character set for HTML 4. This character set also supported 256 different character codes.

Because ANSI and ISO-8859-1 were so limited, the default character encoding was changed to UTF-8 in HTML5.

UTF-8 (Unicode) covers almost all of the characters and symbols in the world.

 

The HTML charset Attribute

To display an HTML page correctly, a web browser must know the character set used in the page.

This is specified in the <meta> tag:

For HTML4:

 

Differences Between Character Sets

The following table displays the differences between the character sets described above:

Numb ASCII ANSI 8859 UTF-8 Description
32         space
33 ! ! ! ! exclamation mark
34 " " " " quotation mark
35 # # # # number sign
36 $ $ $ $ dollar sign
37 % % % % percent sign
38 & & & & ampersand
39 ' ' ' ' apostrophe
40 ( ( ( ( left parenthesis
41 ) ) ) ) right parenthesis
42 * * * * asterisk
43 + + + + plus sign
44 , , , , comma
45 - - - - hyphen-minus
46 . . . . full stop
47 / / / / solidus
48 0 0 0 0 digit zero
49 1 1 1 1 digit one
50 2 2 2 2 digit two
51 3 3 3 3 digit three
52 4 4 4 4 digit four
53 5 5 5 5 digit five
54 6 6 6 6 digit six
55 7 7 7 7 digit seven
56 8 8 8 8 digit eight
57 9 9 9 9 digit nine
58 : : : : colon
59 ; ; ; ; semicolon
60 < < < < less-than sign
61 = = = = equals sign
62 > > > > greater-than sign
63 ? ? ? ? question mark
64 @ @ @ @ commercial at
65 A A A A Latin capital letter A
66 B B B B Latin capital letter B
67 C C C C Latin capital letter C
68 D D D D Latin capital letter D
69 E E E E Latin capital letter E
70 F F F F Latin capital letter F
71 G G G G Latin capital letter G
72 H H H H Latin capital letter H
73 I I I I Latin capital letter I
74 J J J J Latin capital letter J
75 K K K K Latin capital letter K
76 L L L L Latin capital letter L
77 M M M M Latin capital letter M
78 N N N N Latin capital letter N
79 O O O O Latin capital letter O
80 P P P P Latin capital letter P
81 Q Q Q Q Latin capital letter Q
82 R R R R Latin capital letter R
83 S S S S Latin capital letter S
84 T T T T Latin capital letter T
85 U U U U Latin capital letter U
86 V V V V Latin capital letter V
87 W W W W Latin capital letter W
88 X X X X Latin capital letter X
89 Y Y Y Y Latin capital letter Y
90 Z Z Z Z Latin capital letter Z
91 [ [ [ [ left square bracket
92 reverse solidus
93 ] ] ] ] right square bracket
94 ^ ^ ^ ^ circumflex accent
95 _ _ _ _ low line
96 ` ` ` ` grave accent
97 a a a a Latin small letter a
98 b b b b Latin small letter b
99 c c c c Latin small letter c
100 d d d d Latin small letter d
101 e e e e Latin small letter e
102 f f f f Latin small letter f
103 g g g g Latin small letter g
104 h h h h Latin small letter h
105 i i i i Latin small letter i
106 j j j j Latin small letter j
107 k k k k Latin small letter k
108 l l l l Latin small letter l
109 m m m m Latin small letter m
110 n n n n Latin small letter n
111 o o o o Latin small letter o
112 p p p p Latin small letter p
113 q q q q Latin small letter q
114 r r r r Latin small letter r
115 s s s s Latin small letter s
116 t t t t Latin small letter t
117 u u u u Latin small letter u
118 v v v v Latin small letter v
119 w w w w Latin small letter w
120 x x x x Latin small letter x
121 y y y y Latin small letter y
122 z z z z Latin small letter z
123 { { { { left curly bracket
124 | | | | vertical line
125 } } } } right curly bracket
126 ~ ~ ~ ~ tilde
127 DEL        
128       euro sign
129      NOT USED
130       single low-9 quotation mark
131   ƒ     Latin small letter f with hook
132       double low-9 quotation mark
133       horizontal ellipsis
134       dagger
135       double dagger
136   ˆ     modifier letter circumflex accent
137       per mille sign
138   Š     Latin capital letter S with caron
139       single left-pointing angle quotation mark
140   Œ     Latin capital ligature OE
141      NOT USED
142   Ž     Latin capital letter Z with caron
143      NOT USED
144      NOT USED
145       left single quotation mark
146       right single quotation mark
147       left double quotation mark
148       right double quotation mark
149       bullet
150       en dash
151       em dash
152   ˜     small tilde
153       trade mark sign
154   š     Latin small letter s with caron
155       single right-pointing angle quotation mark
156   œ     Latin small ligature oe
157      NOT USED
158   ž     Latin small letter z with caron
159   Ÿ     Latin capital letter Y with diaeresis
160         no-break space
161   ¡ ¡ ¡ inverted exclamation mark
162   ¢ ¢ ¢ cent sign
163   £ £ £ pound sign
164   ¤ ¤ ¤ currency sign
165   ¥ ¥ ¥ yen sign
166   ¦ ¦ ¦ broken bar
167   § § § section sign
168   ¨ ¨ ¨ diaeresis
169   © © © copyright sign
170   ª ª ª feminine ordinal indicator
171   « « « left-pointing double angle quotation mark
172   ¬ ¬ ¬ not sign
173         soft hyphen
174   ® ® ® registered sign
175   ¯ ¯ ¯ macron
176   ° ° ° degree sign
177   ± ± ± plus-minus sign
178   ² ² ² superscript two
179   ³ ³ ³ superscript three
180   ´ ´ ´ acute accent
181   µ µ µ micro sign
182   pilcrow sign
183   · · · middle dot
184   ¸ ¸ ¸ cedilla
185   ¹ ¹ ¹ superscript one
186   º º º masculine ordinal indicator
187   » » » right-pointing double angle quotation mark
188   ¼ ¼ ¼ vulgar fraction one quarter
189   ½ ½ ½ vulgar fraction one half
190   ¾ ¾ ¾ vulgar fraction three quarters
191   ¿ ¿ ¿ inverted question mark
192   À À À Latin capital letter A with grave
193